June 16, 2017

The reasons of cultural diversity Part 1

The book is divided into four parts, each of which includes a number of books that consist of several sections. The first part covered the theme of the relationship of Earth and human beings as the central of terrestrial animals. IG Herder in presenting this theme should be some basic ideas of Kant, B.; One of them – consideration of history as a part of the history of nature and its organic world in which the progressive development of living beings. IG Herder was heavily influenced by discoveries in science and interpreted them in a spirit of vitalism.

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The second part describes the difference in organic structure nation depending on geographical location and climatic conditions. These pages are full of interesting examples from the life of the peoples of Asia, Africa, America and other countries and escorted poetic description of the appearance of certain peoples and explaining the reasons for some of the changes that are influenced by climate, employment areas, the rituals and traditions. IG Herder covers a layer of human characteristics, features which are quite certain determinants: the nature of sensitivity changes depending on the climate; climate-defined human imagination; practical mind of mankind throughout the grown needs of life; feelings and desires of people everywhere are consistent with their living conditions; human happiness – is always the benefit of the individual and specific climate, brainchild of traditions and habits. These pages work VR Herder is of considerable interest to researchers engaged in cultural anthropology.

The third part deals with the uniqueness of nations and cultural spheres of their activity in a large range. It starts with a description of the peoples of Asia, as VR Herder believes that it is in the mountains of Asia came first living human race. However, he notes that we know little of Asia, though “some uncertain hands came to us these news” because “all our news, we learned only from the lips of the surface of the Greeks.” IG Herder makes this wide panorama of different ancient peoples, Chinese, Persians, Egyptians, Greeks, Etruscans, Latins, Romans, etc. Moreover, in its description not have any hierarchy and systematization. The same problem describe the different peoples he performs in the fourth part of his work, which tells the Finns, Prussians, German, Slavic nations, Franks and others.

Book VR Herder is not complete, as evidenced by the plan at the end of the final volume, which implies that it was planned conversation about humanity “against the individual” (with the word “humanity” in italics). But even that did this German thinker, was a worthy contribution to the development of cultural studies.

Let us analyze the most important ideas VR Herder, established in line with the German tradition, represented by thinkers of the time from different disciplines: theology, philosophy and literature.

Cause of cultural diversity and the problem of succession

In contrast to the tenets of European philosophy, demonstrate the immutability of human nature as originally given, and of humans at all times, VR Herder in the center of their considerations put culture – historical origin written by people changing over time and varied in space, “Man – no independent substance, it is in conjunction with all the elements of nature: air, he lives, and all sorts of offspring of land, food and drink. “

A culture VR Herder explains the natural course of events, primarily meet immediate needs. If we consider man merely as an animal, it will appear in a rather helpless and pathetic, but human weakness becomes the source of its strength. A person deprived of instincts developed another ability, granted to him by nature – “comprehension”, i.e. the intellect in potency, promotes culture. The driving forces of human history – is, in his terminology, “living human energy.” It displays a “law of necessity and compliance”, calling it the main law, which is as follows: “Everywhere there PA Pasha Earth that may arise drink, in part due to the geographic location and the needs of the place, partly in conn connection with the conditions and circumstances random time, partly due to the complex nature of natural and peoples.”

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The emergence of ancient cultures in Asia, as evidenced by ancient language and literature, he explains that “oriental flower blossoms quickly under the influence of a warm nature.” As for the causes of European culture, he says this: “If Europe was rich as India if mainland Europe was monotonous, hot as Africa, closed as America, there was nothing that grew and developed in Europe. Even submerged in deep barbarism Europe geographical position allowed her to regain the light of knowledge. “However, geographical location – is not the only cause of culture. The identity of cultures defined as the natural and social factors. The historical existence of culture ensures their language and traditions. “In all earthly matters people very much depends on the time and place and the differences in the character of the nation, because the most important thing – the nature of the people.” He tirelessly highlights the great importance of moral precepts and traditions in shaping culture. For example, describing the culture of China, he said: “gentleness and courtesy, flexibility in behavior, decent gestures – such is the alphabet, which is studying Chinese from childhood in which he relentlessly perfected throughout life. The authorities and the law is in their accuracy, regularity, strictly routine”.

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