October 6, 2017

The differentiation of culture globalization

As the deployment of globalization is evident that they do not occur simultaneously, differ in specific areas of human activity (which necessitates special study each). At the same time there is a change in the nature of globalization. Today, researchers mark the beginning of the transition from neoliberal type of globalization (Globalization linear) to a new, higher capacity type in its globalization, called synergistic (nonlinear globalization). This latter type of globalization is associated with a slow evolution of a unipolar world under the auspices of the United States in multipolar, owing to the knowledge necessary taking into account national specificities, renunciation of violence and the desire for multilateral cooperation. Formed in the perspective of global society is networked organization that exists along with other principles of division into various areas, sometimes even. And if the economy, trade, or technological process areas of a new type of globalization occurring not as active as in the present conditions of great differences in development and the ensuing hegemony of individual states (this position of strength appears sometimes still, although it is more flexible and precarious ), in the field of culture, including education and culture, spreading globalization of a new type, and here they are inevitable and are essential if we assume that the formation of the fullness of human culture directly preserve diversity. Any other way threatens the harmonization and standardization of culture, thus its impoverishment.

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Initially dimension of globalization processes appear only as a dual integration process contrasted localization process. But cultural realities showed the failure of this simplified consideration, because it turned out many other forms of interaction between cultures, on different levels of civilization, regional, national, ethnic, religious and others. In each of the specific areas of cultural activity, these processes acquired specific forms of expression. You can find good examples from the sphere of everyday culture, fashion, food culture, in the interiors of homes in the forms of entertainment, in the distribution of family life, interpersonal communication, forms of hospitality and why there are numerous other manifestations of borrowing, influence, learning experience other crops. All this contributes to a new paradigm of thinking beyond the categories imposed by Western epistemology.

Distinguishing two types of globalization has a fundamental nature and to some extent be regarded as her transition program in a particular culture. The development of globalization new type, nonlinear globalization in specific areas of culture are not always clear, sometimes there are estimated transformation in line with the ideas that emerged during the initial process of globalization, causing incorrect conclusions and eventually prevents the upgrade.

In the current phase of globalization, which, as mentioned above, called “accelerated” compared to previous phases of this process of interaction and interdependence of countries, states involved in varying degrees. It is no accident, given this fact, the researchers distinguish between center and periphery of the world economic space. The central society, opposing a peripheral act as “more organized and economic equilibrium organism that has more advanced technology, infrastructure, vehicles, commercial culture, balance various sectors, social and political dynamism.” On the contrary, this kind of companies peripheries balance absent in many areas had advanced inorganic coexistence with archaic structures. Such societies are not self sufficiency for the cultural life of their high degree of borrowing. Along with the binomial division of the country, there is a three term formula for center semi periphery, where the term “semi” is considered as a kind of intermediaries. By semi B. Wallerstein, first proposed this concept carries several dozen countries, including Russia, India, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey, South Korea, Vietnam, Spain, Greece, Italy and others.

It is clear that this graduation is rather conventional and dynamic, however, it shows: each country can have very distinct ideas about what place it occupies in the globalization flows that occur at some point in history. Dynamism of graduation because significant changes in the development of the country allow it to move from one to another. For example,

Japan entered the semi zone by the end of XIX century. And after World War II was able to get into the center. Became be approved as the country with the second quarter of the XVIII century., After the reforms of Peter. A number of European countries in the last century against England looked (or peripheral), but then managed to enter the center. Thus, the “place” in the world globalization very conventional, but their dynamics are more noticeable on very large historical period.

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All countries belonging to the periphery and semiperiphery, characterized by a dichotomy of tradition and modernity, because upgrading them is not comprehensive, and fragmented, affecting only certain areas against the background of traditionalism. The interaction processes of modernization and traditionalism the inevitable companion of globalization. There is a break old Nora painful, causes resistance, often organic and desires thus the two sides of globalization inevitably accompany each other. Pa late stage of globalization cultural phenomena like molecular diffusion cross the borders, information links are decentralized nature, destroying the unity of national culture, promote integrative processes in the formation of hybrids.

Ratio of traditionalism and innovation caused by modernization (that should understood not only in technology but also in other areas of transformation political, cultural, educational, are not necessarily character), were primarily domestic policy, and the degree of stability of traditions, values and stereotypes of public consciousness. So the place that occupy certain countries in globalization flows due not only heritage and the place occupied by their socio cultural evolution, but their own efforts and intentions. Considering globalization as a necessary component of which is self organizing evolution of mankind, besides recognizing its inevitable character, it should be able to provide direction it needs through various world participate.

In Europe and Asia, many regions because of the prevailing historical conditions initially was characterized multiculturalism that has survived to this day. According to P. Sorokin, their spatial integration were more than logical semantic nature. In these cultures acutely raised the question of understanding the “other”, “different”. In a heterogeneous environment developed various forms of intercultural dialogue and cultural interaction, and therefore it is appropriate to update the problem of continuity and experience to learn these multicultural communities. This is even more true that at the turn of XX XXI centuries. the world has tremendous.

Characterized by processes of migration crises former identity (national, regional, religious), the formation of transnational cultural space and a cosmopolitan outlook, characteristic mainly for the elite people.

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Problem tolerance, multiculturalism, integration and mutual cultural experience, continuity traditions and artistic styles have always had a place in developing nations. Another thing is that every era has made its changes in these processes, and this affects the categorical apparatus used by the originality and theoretical discourse. And if the period of the local monocultures talked about the assimilation process, which is carried out in the vicinity of axiological attitudes of dialogue meetings, dialogue, understanding, era offered us such concepts as “hybridization”, “Transgression”, ” trans”, “intertextuality”, “cultural / constructive pluralism”, “universalization ” they indicate the processes of cultural interaction is more complex. Perhaps people living on the planet today entered into a new period of “assembly” that will last a thousand years and lead to the formation of a truly new culture on the continent and, consequently.

Contradictory trends in the modern world, Giddens wrote “The main battle of the XXI century. as the conflict between fundamentalism and cosmopolitan tolerance. in a globalized world, where information is constantly forming and” travel “across the globe, we regularly come in contact with others who think and live Mr. as we do. cosmopolitan welcome and accept this cultural diversity. Fundamentalists find it disturbing and dangerous phenomenon. Whether religion, ethnic identity or nationalism they seek refuge in the new and “purified” tradition, and often to violence. There is reason hope that a cosmopolitan point of view prevail. We the new generation that begins to live in a global cosmopolitan society.

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