One of the first saw flaws project and gave a warning that swallow humanity towards rationalization and, Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712 1778), nicknamed “heretic” because it looks not quite fit into the mainstream education ideas. In 1750 work was published JJ Rousseau’s “Discourse on the question whether contributed to the revival of Arts and Sciences purification of morals?” Written on a topic suggested by the Academy of Dijon. JJ Rousseau is aware of the dilemma posed this question, and puzzled by whose side he should take. “How can defy science decent person?” he asks. His answer is: “I do not offend Science. The virtue I defend the people virtuous. Honesty for decent people even more than learning for scientists.” By adopting this position, JJ Rousseau decided to present the true opinion on the matter. He notes the beneficial values arts and sciences that contribute to the revival of Europe after a period of barbarism, which replaced the ancient culture.
He believes that art is certainly “hewn our manners and taught our passions prepared to speak the language,” but made people more intricate and their luck “deceptively low uniformity”; as a result, “people are hesitant to give up what they have.” JJ Rousseau writes about the origin of human behavior stereotypes, formed by art, promotes their canonization, regulation, regulation. He regretted that all this leads to loss of natural rights, so that you never know how to do, who you’re dealing; No more, no sincere friendship, no genuine respect nor reasonable confidence, but a number of defects characterizes modern society. Conclusion JJ Rousseau is very disappointing, “Our souls in As were perfected our spiders and art.”
He drew attention to the fact that the moral decline with increasing spider Arts and emerged not only among European nations, took place in Egypt, Greece, the Eastern Empire. Luxury and debauchery were at all times the penalty for all human attempts to withdraw from the happy ignorance. He is trying to determine the true cause of Sciences’ Astronomy was born from superstition, eloquence of ambition, hatred, flattery, lies, geometry from avarice, physics out of curiosity all of them, and even the morale with them from human pride. science and art, therefore, owe their origin to our vices, we would have less doubt their benefits if their origin they must have our virtues.
Opinions JJ Rousseau betrays pragmatism, science useless, they are born of idleness, the first damage caused by their society an irreparable loss of time. JJ Rousseau castigates few actual ignorance and mental knowledge; As an example of this imaginary knowledge he questions the opportunity to grasp the truth the leitmotif of all scientific research in modern times. In addition, he is interested in who sets the criterion of truth, on what grounds it can be distinguished? And the hardest, according to JJ Rousseau if such criteria still to be found, who will be able to use it properly?
In the writings of JJ Rousseau palpable longing for a model of social relations in which the true nature of man was distorted layers of false reasoning, conventions and prejudices. Detrimental effects of Sciences is the impairment of virtue for a man is judged only from the standpoint of his wit, knowledge, status occupied by them, but not virtue. He puts forward the concept of “natural man” a holistic, healthy, biologically, morally honest and fair. The prototype of all goodness and prosperity, the criterion of highest value he becomes nature. Receive free development of nature leads to the complete victory of feelings, not reason, instinct rather than reflection, self-preservation, not oppression. Man is not only the mind and feelings and passion.
Philosophers largely different from look at art, and especially the theater. If educators saw in the theater platform for promoting new ideas, JJ Rousseau believes that theatrical spectacle a fun and quite useless, it is bad for creatures whose age is so short and precious time. Theatrical performances defined deliver them happy, not use. According to JJ Rousseau, art, science and literature are in line with prejudice, all based on false premises. Because society cannot save them and return to nature, the way “denaturalization man.” He believes that we should rely on existing in the human potential to the good. Refine: JJ Rousseau is not against reason and culture in general, it is against this reason and culture of achievement that not notice certain features of man’s inner world, but it is connected with it the possibility of radical change in society. Philosopher shows contradictory social progress.
He was one of the first flaws noticed project and gave a warning movement towards humanity scientific and technical rationality, which leads to increased alienation of man from himself and the results of their work to the increasing income inequality and deterioration of manners. As a spider, and thus culture can no longer move forward on the same path, JJ Rousseau calls choose a completely different direction.