Getting to highlight distinctive cultural systems, refers to finding inner defining aspect of integration, which, he said, it appears, especially in mental people. Assuming that each cultural system has its own mentality, its own system of truth and knowledge, has its own philosophy and a particular type of religion, its own idea of right and wrong, specific forms of art and literature, customs, laws, rules, its own political and economic organization finally specific type of human being, he believes it possible to distinguish between these types of cultural systems: sensory and mixed, which he called idealistic type.
Regarding this, quite awkward terminology responded AJ. Toynbee in “The Philosophy of History P. Sorokin,” noting that “new terms created difficulties in intelligent communication between the author and his readers. Do not be satisfied Sorokin any of these terminological pairs “supernatural” mentality, “spiritual and materialistic” mentality, “dogmatism and skepticism” and “living by faith” and “the life of the mind?” Perhaps he Sorokin replied that he felt the need to create their own, second terms as and terminology in circulation, does not express its meaning precise and exhaustive manner. For one thing – to invent new words, and quite another – let them into circulation. “
Realizing convention any typology, P. Sorokin explains that no or sensitive types of crops will never exist in pure form, but the weight integrated culture are actually made up of different compounds of pure logical-semantic forms. Some dominated the first type, some – second; something which they are both mixed in equal proportions. In addition, each integrated culture or Supersystem is like a constellation of many cultural subsystems, i.e. it includes painting, sculpture, architecture, music, science, philosophy, law, religion, ethics, forms of social, political and economic organizations.
Scientific assumes that every cultural Supersystem different from another peculiarity of truth, so in culture dominates some truths system, based on criteria of authenticity that is different from mental evidence. This dominant system stems from the truth of faith received by revelation, through intuition, mystical experience. For purely thinking truth of faith must seem more reliable than human reason and logic.
In cultural supersystem sensual sensory system dominates truths, based on the evidence of the senses. Since carriers sensual ™ and mental culture there is no reality outside and beyond sensible formation, their feelings and to be the main and almost sole judge of that is true and what is false.
In the idealistic ™ and mental culture lies in its system based on truth must occupy an intermediate position between supernatural revelation and sensitive data, as it seamlessly combines both systems.
To confirm their assumptions refers to the analysis of broad areas of art; knowledge; moral and legal awareness; of social relations (contractual and enforcement); wars that have taken place in the history of Greece, Rome and Europe; examines the relationship between types of culture and personality types and behavior. All this makes it a huge factual material in different cultures and historical periods.
In a dedicated typology quite visible “age of the gods” – “age people” – and sensitive “age of heroes” – idealistic stage. However, unlike James. Vico (which clearly indicated sequence are phases in each cycle, and said that it should be a single order), he writes about fluctuations (vibrations) allocated to them cultural systems, that there is “rushing” of history. He repeatedly explained that pet universal order, which one would change supersystem others. However, the above list is any assessment of the nature of the transition from one supersystem to another, because the transition from the sensual culture to idealistic difficult, you need to force, while “much easier down the snowy peaks on a beautiful plateau idealistic reality than raised him from the plain overripe sensate culture. ” Idealistic stage in the development of civilization, apparently, for him the most productive in comparison to the other two, is the peak of civilization, although such productive points in the development of civilization, according to his conception, can be provided.
At this scheme of development of human culture, PA Sorokin beyond the situation to him the tradition of distinguishing the dynamics of individual civilizations leads to exhaustion and thereby to end. He repeatedly emphasizes the progressive nature of people, relying on the cyclical interpretation of history. If we consider his ideas as part of civilized approach, his concept of turnover supersystems reveals some ambivalence: first, supersystem – is that the PA everyday language can be called parts or segments civilization; Secondly, and more than civilization, something superior to them.