July 5, 2017

Culture as a universum of values

Philosophy of Culture is a system of views on cultural and civilizational processes, which reflected the typical beginning of the century philosophical and social ideas. Particularly strong influenced by the philosophy of humanism representative of British pragmatism F. K. Schiller, led largely subjective idealist general direction views. He also tried to develop a system of “philosophy of humanism,” which is part of the philosophy of culture. Humanism he treated as human desire for truth, good and beauty, in whatever form it is manifested pi. Man as a historical individual in one way or another is a “measure of all things” with its specific and diverse aspirations and beliefs, as well as the Historical Society, with no less determined and varied and changing needs of institutions. Thus, the philosophy of humanism considers man as the central problem. But this does not philosophy and philosophical anthropology is not in the strict sense, and the doctrine of the world as a child of creative activity. In his paper “Humanism and knowledge” (1912) claimed that the man  a focus and creator of the world.

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He did not lower the absolute, but should be established on the absolute power and absolute power of man. Creative potential of human power concentrated in his thinking, because it only creates the world. The idea is creative reality. At each moment thought creates and transforms the real world: it creates relationships synthesizing items and items synthesizing relationship. This, however, consciousness is not a subjective image of the world, the creation of reality itself. Yes, nature, according to this view, is a construct knowledge. The real is just what our opinions are created; diversity, communication, past and future of the world exist only insofar as they had thought. If knowledge is a manifestation of cultural creativity or cultural activism, the philosophy of culture involves, in a sense philosophy of nature, because nature is part of the culture. Tried to overcome the inherent naturalism and but took seems too radically opposite opposition to bringing natural cultural product of human activity.

Ontological foundation of culture, according to value, because value is a key structural element of culture, and theory of value  axiology  the basis of the philosophy of culture. At this point he finds his world famous dependence on Neo Kantianism Baden school. Thinker not only asserts that reality consists of two main elements of the types of things and values; He goes further and, in fact, sees things as derived from the property. Must admit, according to that immediate reality represented by the infinite variety of individual specific values, but the values given to us directly. The very same value does not occur with any preconditions, it is not preceded no absolute existence, but rather a purely rational considerations compel us to accept as final category logical concept of value, which indicates all existing values.

Thus, the culture seems universe of values, real world values (such as in the “cultural reality”, 1919), but not frozen in some absolute space and alienated from the human being. Humanism  a doctrine not only of value, but also the philosophy of activity, active human activity, in which he reveals his creative nature. Activity  a special kind of movement in the world of values and one of its main forms of thinking. In thinking values serve as the object of thought, but not in a static but a dynamic sense, because creative thinking is always transforming their subjects. But if the thought is the creation of values and their transformation, the relationship between them is the essence of practice. Argued that values can be the starting point of the action, the relationship between the values expressed in reality, not in theoretical thinking. As a result, practical life, life aesthetic, religious, moral, that is, but essentially, the entire cultural process can be interpreted a processing reality through the selection of all her new relationship between CE elements.

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