Complex main ideas that emerged during the Enlightenment, was named project. The setting of the Enlightenment project was indirectly the level of knowledge of the time. Axiom of modern times made the first law of thermodynamics – the law of conservation of energy. It substantiates the hypothesis of survival and preservation of life structure and underlying ideas about the evolutionary basis of cosmology and biology. Pego Therefore, the structure of the world are becoming more complex, as the energy and the tendency to increase the degree of complexity stored. Increased complexity, reduction or absence of this regression was standard for modern times because once the current level, but the law of conservation of energy takes time. The current mechanical world view (as at the time of the nature of fundamental science became mechanics) based on the position all things to a set of basic elements of particles (first played their role atoms, then – electrons and protons later – quarks). Such ideology has spread and treatment of human and social processes.
Under the influence of scientific trends doctrine of man and humanity acquired in the XVIII century. kind of scientific research, less abstract talked about good and evil, the “eternal” human nature; the study of human nature have increasingly been brought political economy, legal, historical material. Belief in the infallibility of the machining program was like a religious faith and, just as the latter for his study theology attracted first was based on respectively (positive) philosophy of science. Only in the West and elsewhere there was a science in this comprehensive form. Universalist claims of science, faith in progress as the goal of social development, hypertrophied universal rationality set the tone modern culture.
Strengthening this philosophy in XVII-XVIII centuries. similar coup in people’s minds, and it was no less spectacular than the one that occurred in the Middle Ages and was associated with the strengthening of Christianity. The world seemed and purpose of natural science knowledge of nature acted disclosure inherent objective laws. The science of modern times sought to ensure that no with time: the search for the fundamental structures of perception, language, aesthetic experience, and so on. D. Triumphal march of science seemed just about complete explanation of the mysteries of the world and man, and that in such sensations fate stepped era saw Weber, “with its characteristic rationalization and intellectualization and, above all world.”
Reached the Enlightenment belief in its peak progress of human knowledge strengthened the idea of one-way movement history. clear “reasonableness” as opposed to “The Passion” was seen as a panacea educators improvement of society. Progress conceived them as the gradual penetration of European civilization in all regions of the world, which, in their opinion, remained outside the trunk line history. This approach to the assessment of the socio gradually embodied in concept, in which science is treated as the best means of resolving any human problems inevitably contributes to harmony and order.
The most vivid educational ideas were outlined in the writings of French thinkers. The main provisions, despite some differences between them can be summarized as follows:
- the rule of faith in the unlimited power of reason; study the idea of universality of human nature;
- the ability to create logically connected system of laws and generalizations, instead of a cluster of errors, mental, superstitions, dogmas that exist among people;
- belief that previous periods of human culture devoid of appeal (except classical antiquity, the Renaissance), because it was a time of deep sleep, the human spirit, wild barbarism and superstition;
- the belief that as educating people and improving their customs laws of the mind will act in a more obvious;
- the belief that people’s actions according to the laws of reason open great prospects for humanity, which affect the foundation of the harmonious development of human society;
- intends to use the study formed inanimate methods of knowledge to the field of human relations, politics, ethics, leading to mechanistic (restriction of the diversity of public relations cause-effect relationships) and determinism.
As mentioned above, particularly important in the ideology of the Enlightenment took the idea of progress, although various representatives of this intellectual movement it differently. In some cases, it spread to all epochs of human history since the dawn of civilization (JA Condorcet), others – saw its application only selectively, that is, in some periods, such as in the classical hundred in the Renaissance (Voltaire). This idea can be seen as an extension of the linear intentions Christian idea of history. Christian historiosophy reduced essentially a straight line, the description of which begins in the first chapters of Genesis, and ends with the Apocalypse. In XVIII century. almost simultaneously began extracting God from science education and the emergence of faith in progress. Educational ideology made the first God of the brackets (saying: “I do not need this hypothesis”), and then completely refused him the right to exist, instead offering only one idea – the idea of progress. Based on this idea eventually grew theory of evolution as the Marxist theory “about the bright future of mankind”. Same note, the idea of linear progress was in the XVIII century only.
Diderot saw progress as aberration (from the Latin. Aberratio – stray, err): State ripen and fall as fruit trees. JL D’Alembert, KA Helvetius. III. L. Montesquieu, E. Gibbon, John. Viko inclined to the idea of circulation, although it was interpreted ambiguously. However, it was popular idea in the next. Representative of the French Enlightenment Voltaire (1694-1778) clearly articulated the idea that, despite the accident, zigzags, margins, developing human history ascendant. In the story “Candida” he sharply parodies the idea of pre-established harmony, and in the “Essay on the customs and spirit of Nations” says that the idea – the driving force of history. This position thinker expressed optimism outlook, supported the general belief in the mind as the transformative power of human culture and society.