January 11, 2018

Origin of culture

A special place in the philosophy of culture is the question of the origin of the world culture as a human reality. He gave his formulation of the relationship between nature and society, contrasting its positivist naturalistic. As already noted, based on a decision on the principle of priority values (cultural) over the natural. The researcher formulates the problem in the form of naturalism and dilemma. In one case it includes two versions of the philosophy of culture, and those that follow each other mutually in the development of the culture, philosophy gives way things philosophy values. But they may coexist as two different views on the nature of culture and its genesis in virtue of the principle of intellectual tolerance. In another sense understood as a special condition or type being chaos. According opinions thinker, chaos is not nature, because nature is constructed in cognition and thus “cultural” in its essence.

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It is a kind of being illogical, this is not a reality, but whose clever reality that culture grows. He – the irrational basis of culture, rather than precedes it historically phase. In contrast to the chaos of culture – is integrity, rational ordering, display art in its highest form – rationality. In these terms, the essence of the cultural phenomenon fundamentally opposed and interpretation of culture in the “philosophy of life” philosophy, meaning (Spengler, L. Bergson, L. Klages, R. Keyzerlynh etc.). However, as a whole humanistic oriented concept of the Polish thinker bears, especially in the early editions, reflection and spiritual aristocracy, expressed in the form cultural catastrophic prophecies. This is particularly evident in “The Decline of Western Civilization” (1921), in its basic content a broad stream of theories that predicted the imminent death of the Western European alternative culture in the extinction of the creative power elites and approval of mass social processes. Thus, the philosophy of culture typical of a sociological approach in the sense that the analysis of cultural phenomena and processes, and to characterize them involved agents he used sociological criteria and submission.

Each civilization, by forms an organic unity based on a particular set of ideas. Production of them is the main content of the civilization process as creativity. Examples explanation can be considered as the ideal definition of a covered imagination life forms that relates more to the artistic activity, the social. Developing ideals cannot be the fate of the bulk of society that is inert, inert, tends to routine acts. She – the inheritance only “intellectual aristocracy”, i.e. the totality of classes that are leading in this era. By means of creative leadership, intellectual achievement, not a property or another area. However, intellectual domination must inevitably supplemented by some mechanism of social and political power elite was able to force indifferent to creativity crowd assimilate acquired her values. A civilization can exist only insofar as it regularly is a mechanism of production values and their subsequent assimilation crowd.

“The aristocracy of spirit” to lose the creative ability that is always present as a trend, such as a privileged social status or stop receiving pulses due to the influx of creative individuals from the crowd. The disaster comes not only because of the degeneration of spiritual leaders, but also because of social upheavals. This type of destructive actions, especially dangerous for civilization, for it is generated mainly amateur masses, the crowd, which he considers rebellion and revolution. He writes that every war, every revolution liberates even the most organized social groups of crowd psychology that destroys much more than was originally intended. Thus, the real cause of the crisis of European civilization, which pushes to a catastrophic end, is, according, socio-political situation in the position of the lower classes, their activity, conflict with the leader of the company, claims to dominance, that mass democratic movement. Burglar efforts “leading minority” created the basis of Western civilization values that guarantee this painless evolution and even progress. Thinker calls the seven core values or ideals of spiritual elite “ideal domination over nature”, which gave impetus to the development of technical progress; “Ideal wealth – public and private”, in which a welfare society and entrepreneurship; “National and democratic ideal”, whereby the state is public purposes; ideal of compassion for people that leads to improving the living conditions of man; Finally, religious, aesthetic ideals and values of science. In its

Essentially this value code elitist society with a broad altruistic program, presented in rather abstract and recommended as a means of subjugation and domination of the weight of its destructive impulses. Concerned about the prospect of deviations from these values, which is equivalent to the destruction of the foundations of society provided to them as disaster did all.

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Importance theory is not in his thoughts about the death of Western civilization, provided that the prevailing trend is not there are stopped, persist, and this development is not shifting to new goals. It is – in accented raising the question of values as the main promoter of productive social and cultural process. Despite what axiology PA by the then received fairly wide development and rooted in the humanities, to no one with such dramatic urgency not raised the question of what moral values – is not the scope of the other world, and a direct product of real human activity. Their development and maintenance is the creation, without which culture is impossible. Cultural Society threatened death only if the area of human activity where they are created, and cease to be amazed.

Sociologist believes that there are certain areas of social activity within the competence of a particular social group – the elite, which is the main function provide production and maintenance of the spiritual values and ideas. He himself went on to further focus on the social conditions of values of creativity and culture.

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