December 15, 2017

Civilization development

Thus, the development of civilization. Toynbee, based on the principle of “challenge – response”: environment (and the natural and social) continuously challenging civilization confront its problems, and society, especially in the face of a creative minority, forced to seek solutions to these problems. “Thus, the essence of civilization is growing clan (impulse), which causes side challenge after a successful response to the balance of advantage, which is manifested in another call.” The growth of civilization – is the realization of ideas drama “challenge – response”.

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Toynbee wrote that “growing civilization different from static primitive societies dynamic movement taking place in their social systems by creative individuals.” The creative minority is designed to respond to the challenge posed by the environment, i.e. external factors. The “external factor” is to transform the “inner creative impulse” permanent stimulus that promotes the realization of potential. The creative minority directs the development of civilization, provides a continuous process of disclosing this potential internal tensions and its self-expression through problem solving. The development of civilization occurs when an individual, minority or society as a whole answers the call, not just for his matches, and is also responsible for a new challenge, which in turn requires further responses creative variations.

But society is not only a creative minority, but with most tedious. In this regard, AJ. Toynbee raises the problem of interaction: most will remain behind, while pioneers cannot think of any way to pull an inert rearguard to its own level. That means he believes mimesis. However mimesis differently acting in primitive and civilized society. In primitive society it is aimed at the older generation and the dead ancestors, leading society to a static state. In societies that are in the process of civilization mimesis, imitation is aimed at creative individuals who are pioneers. “The problem pulling tedious to ordinary members of the creative pioneers on the scale of society can be resolved only through an absolute ability mimesis – one of the least exalted faculties of human nature that has more to training than to inspiration.” Mimesis he believes the shortest path to purchase social “assets” – in the form of abilities, emotions and ideas.

The flowering of civilization is characterized by its internal cohesion, unity and solidarity. A distinctive feature of growing civilization is that it is at this stage only some social whole in which economic, political and cultural elements combined internal harmony growing social system. But when society begins to disintegrate and, one of the symptoms of this disease is the division of social cultural, political and economic elements, creating a painful dissonance. Thus, the development of civilization, AJ. Toynbee is not defined or development of technology itself, nor geography, nor the conquest of nature, but primarily internal cohesion of its members.

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