October 25, 2017

Cosmopolitanism Part 1

Cosmopolitanism  a special type of attitude, manifested most clearly in crisis or transition periods of culture. Seen in antiquity phenomenon of cosmopolitanism acquires special relevance in the era of globalization, because the individual performing the activity in multinational space gets real opportunities to expand the borders (state and national), thus facilitating its transfer from the category of metaphors characteristic of the real identity. The output of the subject to be saying cynicism of Diogenes of Sinope. “When asked where he Diogenes said,” a citizen of the world. Since the phenomenon turned cosmopolitan understanding the subject of various thinkers, resulting in overgrown lots meanings range which is great and includes both positive and negative opinions. Topical and problematic Aristophanes appears saying “where good there and home,” within the paradigm of the nation state as a rather cynical. Dual citizenship, immigration and professional migration, mobility of students, mixed marriages, hybridization of culture, book trade, import and export of periodicals, art  it is a reality of our days, which updates the issues of formation of a cosmopolitan society and culture.

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Understanding the phenomenon of cosmopolitanism cannot be done outside the historical context and the particular study the status of the individual in the society. Currently, those who see globalization as an objective process and multi recognize the legitimacy of the existence of this phenomenon and tend to explore its features on this new stage of evolution of culture. Those who are opposed to globalization processes and sees them only a threat to national, cultural, ethnic identity and sovereignty  shun and condemn manifestations of any signs and unity of mankind  they say themselves in certain forms of economic cooperation and integrity or manifested in self reflection of individuals. Getting to the analysis of this phenomenon, we note that this writer close view of those who recognize that “the idea of globalization has great positive potential that is proclaiming the oneness of mankind, considering the whole planet earth as a common home.”

The processes of globalization are heterogeneous, they lead to both positive and negative results are managed and recognizable  it is therefore necessary to study them at this stage of historical development, when we cannot see the trend towards overcoming ethnic, cultural limitations and active desire of mankind to solve all arising problems together.

Admittedly, the implementation of policies of globalization entails a weakening of national public policy. This contributes to strengthening the power of multinational companies that can export jobs to where the cost of manpower and the lowest taxes; due to division of labor, production and services in different parts of the world where the issue of the nationality of the company but can be misleading; push the interests of national states in search of places with the lowest taxes and favorable infrastructure; to choose a place for investment for production, to pay taxes and live. All these features noted German sociologist Ulrich Beck (b. 1944) in his book “What is globalization?”, Which drew a distinction between the nature of the power exercised national government (associated with a particular area and the ensuing essential components: the publication of laws protection of borders, control over membership) and the nature of power exercised by the international community (though the concept of “power” in this case, as the author himself, it is not appropriate).

Presented individuals of different states belonging to different cultures, nationalities and accordingly dissimilar traditions, customs, mentality, the international community permeates the territorial boundaries of many different unrelated to a particular area of social relationships, market relations and communications network. The scientist believes that by intervening in the situation overarching structure of nation states in the world community not undermine national identity, not converted into a community, confidence and eliminate all national societies and is a “specified manifold and difficult to integrate global horizon that opens when it is created and stored in communication and action.”

Recognizing the inevitable transformation of the nation states that enter into the process of globalization, its scope should be distinguished from the full denationalization of a possible transformation into a transnational state. Border pas that could keep the nation state in this process depends on the qualities inherent in it: cultural policies focused on the formation of transnational and preservation of national values, privatization own national traditions, mentality stability, degree of involvement in globalization processes, and others. In any case, national identity is questioned as a regional anchor lost, creating a range of components, and it will give space to form a transnational social space, which becomes a breeding ground for the emergence of globalization.

Facilitate the implementation of the so called civilizational breakdown, as evidenced by the destruction of many basic reason is simulated for several centuries civilized system as a “global goal and civilizational commonality apart. Civilization seeks to extend itself, globalization is committed to the development of the planet as a whole.” Familiar mechanisms for establishing identity, formed in separate systems of civilization, transforming, and it brings to life the need to establish the identities of other different order, including identifying himself as a citizen of the world. Is not only an objective process, and it is a reflective.

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