Romantic era preceded formed in the writings of German philosophers of the XVIII century. understanding of culture as a certain set of achievements of mankind, considered as the highest value or benefit created by man. As already mentioned, it is about multiplying any single human culture were thinkers such as JA Condorcet, seeing this process through progressive development. However, in the first third of the XIX century. in the late W. von Humboldt of “culture” becomes set, although there are still sporadic and unstable, coexists alongside the term “general culture” as a general process of domestication nations. And despite the fact that some thinkers of the time you can find an interpretation of culture as a result of the different subjects and thus embodies the values and various plants, though only in the era of romanticism confirmed the view of the relativity of cultural values, that is, the cultural.
Cultural relativism romanticism evident in his self as the art system that is not rejected the legacy of past eras, including changing their classical art, but these achievements integrate their own artistic paradigm. Thus the concept of romanticism claimed Cultural equality and plurality of different art practices and the culture, introducing and digesting their identity in their own cultural space. Friedrich Schlegel in programmatic article “On the study of Greek poetry” critical of contemporary artistic culture, considering as such ancient art and culture, thereby fixing the many trends of the artistic process, developed in XIX-XX centuries. He later abandoned the antithesis of the “classic” and “romantic” art, recognizing the interpenetration and artistic traditions. “Nowadays, the development of cultural relativism has led to a general indifferent pluralism of postmodern art and new media,” – said domestic theorist.
Cultural pluralism is reflected not only in art but also in religion, as evidenced by the emergence of artistic texts even before then in the romantic era of so-called aesthetic polytheism: the concept of “God” was used in the plural in many poets and writers: Jean de Nerval, Flaubert G., II. Verlepa, Charles Baudelaire and others.
There was a new attitude to nature. In the era of romanticism idea to protect crops from the ravages of the elements (nature), which replaced the idea of protecting crops from the uninitiated (A. Schopenhauer); special role assigned in this state as the owner of a monopoly on violence. During this period, offset reflected in fiction theme of military violence. Towering theme conducive to human nature, where he can feel free, are a more than society, the state, as evidenced by the growth of poetry, which tends to scenic beauty, contemplation. The desire to collect, to the careful preservation of old books change the vector search of cultural values, not in the future (as the Enlightenment), and last available real culture. Increased importance artist compared to previous eras, which were above all scientists claim to create objective knowledge about the world.
Since attracted romantics values, norms and traditions of other cultures, there is the theme of otherness in culture, the theme of the stranger, the problem of understanding the idea of the diversity of cultures, undergo transformations limits of their own culture (perceived or real).
Friedrich Schlegel was one of those who (after W. Goethe) appealed to the Eastern culture, having written the book “on language and wisdom of the Indians” (1808) and made a number of translations of Indian texts. It turns proximity Hindu and German attitude of the time, the researchers point out that the culture of the XX century. 1; This is also stated in his time, Jean-Paul, seeing the proximity of the eastern and romantic poetry in mutual superiority sublime and lyrical in style think and feel. Indian Reed in general he called “romantic.” This process is reflected in the era of romanticism and was marked above all translations of important texts of oriental culture. One of the first works translated from Sanskrit into European languages, was Kalidasa drama “Shakuntala” (1789 English translation came out in 1791 – German). This was followed by translations of “Ramayana”, “Laws of Manu”, “Mahabharata”, “Bhagavad-Gita.” Eastern texts included in the range of interests of the German Romantics, as evidenced by evaluation of these works made VR Herder, Schlegel, FV. Schelling. Although still interested in oriental texts RV F. Hegel, but it estimates suffer and are clearly one-sided character. Friedrich Schlegel in his book showed great tolerance to otherness values of oriental culture, but he did not escape approach in their thinking and temptation”.
Try some of the European culture. Anticipating that opens a new era, he compared the infusion of Indian Culture in Europe (which he helped to some extent) with Renaissance antiquity. Such a comparison we encounter.
At the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries. ideas of other cultures – artistic, religious, aesthetic, ethical, philosophical – began to penetrate into Europe, destroying emerged in the previous time Eurocentrism, creating so-called Western culture field.