German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 – 1900) is the founder of “philosophy of life” – the direction of Western philosophical thought that has emerged in the last third of the XIX century. in Germany, where “life” was the original concept in analyzing various spheres of human activity, himself and therefore culture in general. This trend can be seen as a reaction to the mental age of the Enlightenment, reason opposed forces of life that are interpreted as irrational and inaccessible to any rational thinking. Representatives of the “philosophy of life” set themselves the task of building a holistic view of the world based solely on the concept of “life.” With this concept was created of the world as a whole, about how his comprehension of the meaning of human life and the values that give “life” that makes sense. Based on the fact that life – is a valuable human life is viewed only from the standpoint of completeness of display life. Put forward the idea that the construction of the painting of the universe philosophy should not be based solely on science, that priority should be given an artistic vision that is more than the sciences capable capture variability of the world, the movement of life itself.
“Philosophy of Life” had a huge impact on European culture and identity of XX century. This trend, in addition to Nietzsche, submitted names Art. Dilthey, Spengler, Bergson, G. Simmel. At considerable similarity of views of these thinkers, the interpretation of the concept of “life” they still have some differences, whereby it is possible to distinguish between biological, psychological and cultural interpretation.
In Nietzsche the concept of “life” means perpetual motion and development. What is it for him? “To live – that means: always reject from himself what he wants to die, to live – this means: being cruel and merciless to all that is weak and old here, and not just us.” The world lives single, integrated, eternal, despite the fact that eternal unstable and provides current, formation. In the controversy with previous ideas about the world, which are embodied in the concept of “two worlds”, Friedrich Nietzsche, in an ironic sense, using the terminology of classical philosophy, says: apparent “world-the only” real world “only him”. “Divide the world into” real and imaginary, still in the spirit or in the spirit of Christian or Kant (after treacherous Christian) is only a suggestion of decadence – a symptom of a downward life.” As part of the initial idea of the philosopher considers the world of knowledge, truth, science, art, and ultimately the culture as a whole.
Critical assessment culture
Nietzsche Thoughts on culture can be viewed in two perspectives: positive – claiming the possibility of forming a more perfect man, the creator of a culture that celebrated would not humiliated him; negative or critical – aimed at dispelling values and reassess the existing culture. The subject of his criticism is mainly European culture next to him two centuries, which sees it as apocalyptic: we Europeans are witnessing the spectacle of the terrible world of ruins, where a little more proudly stands where many and continues terribly stuck in place, and most of the has turned to ruins. The main ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche: the culture is sick, humanity is sick and degenerates in this culture imperfect man, he that “we must win.” Basic background and causes of the crisis Nietzsche sees those trends that determine the development of European culture: the supremacy of reason over instinct, the cult of reason, to recognize the priority of the spiritual over the corporal. “During the horrific periods of time intelligence is not produced nothing but errors” – proclaimed philosopher, therefore, that “there are numerous lapses of consciousness.” In light of his criticism falls just what was the basic desire of modern European culture: “This bad taste, this will to truth, to” truth at any cost.” He proposes to abandon the established culture of the New Age cult science and scientific truth, as a result of scientific progress of the world were the result of many mistakes and fantasies that humanity inherited, resulting in the substitution occurred truth lies in this construction lies happening all European culture. Modern culture that is based on science, it is Nietzsche as deeply hostile to life. Mind alien life, it destroys it, while never feeling cheated.
The ideal of a healthy society and culture for it is Greek civilization. In his early work “The Birth of Tragedy pessimism” (1872) Nietzsche refers to the analysis of ancient culture and examines the art of that time as full-blooded embodiment and manifestation of real life as a spontaneous, nothing except the will and instincts of the artist process. Art Science appeared before in human history, and thanks to him, according to Nietzsche, life and the world are justified only as an aesthetic phenomenon. In this paper are further developed ideas and Dionysian started, still present in the texts as I.. Goethe, FV. Schelling, romantic.
Dionysian principle – the priority instinctive will to live, the game of vitality, “intoxication” very essence of life beyond any controls or dictates of reason or intelligence. Apollonian principle, on the contrary – it dictates the mind or the mind, makes the ordering of life. These are interpreted as the beginning of a fundamentally different forces that erupt from the nature and appear as artistic force and only through artists’ artistic impulses of this nature get proximally and direct through their satisfaction. Towards the decline of culture and humanity begins with Socrates, then continues in the Christian period, but in the era of Friedrich Nietzsche reaches its climax. In ancient times, as he believed, there was a plurality of ethical and other values; every tribe, nation, people have their values other than the values of other communities. In addition, differentiation of society into nobles and slaves helped create a culture for slavery, in the opinion of Friedrich Nietzsche, must culture.