Besides JJ Rousseau opponents pervasive rationalism of the Enlightenment were other thinkers, although their programs and beliefs sometimes turned far enough apart. Among them clearly stand out against the rationalism of the time and the Protestant German writer Johann Georg metaphysician Aman (1730 1788), whose influence extends to periods of “Sturm und Drang” on romanticism and contemporary philosophy of language. In contrast to the Kantian intellectual knowledge VR Aman pointed to the creative power of feeling and cordiality, are considered especially effective in poetry – the native language of mankind. There were other critics of the Enlightenment project, as the Irish theorist and politician Edmund Burke (1729-1797) expressed his opposition to revolutionary excesses; English economist and clergyman Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) believed that the unavoidable lack of natural resources; Marquis de Sade (1740-1814) described the other side of the liberation of man, which is not within the model education.
The origins of the formation of such criticism can be found even in the teachings that come from the Greek Sophists – Protagoras, Antiphon, Krytyya whereby, beliefs, including value judgments based PA institutions are not based on the discovery of objective and immutable natural facts and the views of people who are changing and are different in every society and in different times. It is this tradition found its continuation in the skeptics XVI., In particular Montaigne, then John Vico, and later in D. Hume.
However, a crucial role in changing the world played a series of dramatic events that took place in the scientific world in the future time. Already in the XIX century. based on open while the second law of thermodynamics, according to which all our structures is finite, and the trend of decline are far more probabilistic than trend towards stability, prepared the ground for further change paradigms. This law is in force in all areas without exception, was found only in physics in the mid XX century. and determined largely necessity of forming a new outlook, including the recognition that scientific understanding and rational comprehension of the world have their limits. From this time disputes arose about the exhaustion educational project. This topic has not lost its relevance today, in witness whereof We refer to the book of modern political theorist John. Gray “Wake on Education. Politics and Culture in western modernity,” which refers to the exhaustion of the educational project and the need for other philosophical orientations and book W. Beck “risk society on the way to more modern”, which refers to the new stage of development of Western culture.
Philosopher Jürgen Habermas in the XX century. called Enlightenment project modern design. The concept of “modern” is ambiguous use as distinguish different characteristics of modernism in the history of European culture, and in this regard should be differentiated concept of “modern aesthetic”, “Modern Philosophy”, “modern culture”, “art nouveau”.
According to Habermas, “the project of modernity, the Enlightenment philosophers formulated in the XVIII century. Is to consistently develop science universalist morality and autonomous rights and the arts in all their uniqueness – but at the same time release likewise accumulate cognitive potentials of their esoteric “high” forms and used to practice that for a reasonable distribution of vital relationships. According to him, the discourse of modern began RV F. Hegel, the first to realize it as a philosophical problem, followed by a number of thinkers having various attempts to study modern. Critical discourse of modern well, according to Habermas, was formed in early Romanticism and then extended Nietzsche, representatives of the Frankfurt School and other philosophers’. Most of this topic were turned works of philosophers and culture, which we attribute to the postmodern.