Sigmund Freud (1856 1939) Austrian psychiatrist, neurologist, psychologist, founder of psychoanalysis. His theory provided a tremendous influence in shaping many areas of art, the interpretation of a number of issues of culture and the development of some humanities XX century. In the 1873 1881’s. He studied medicine at Vienna University, then worked as a practicing physician. During the practice has developed a method of treatment of neurosis, which he called “cathartic”, which formed the basis of the original psychological theory (and methods). Freud considered himself a psychiatrist and emphasized his incompetence in matters beyond psychology and psychiatry. However, trying to understand the language of psychoanalysis anxiety of his age, he went to the highest social generalizations and expanded use of his method to solve problems of deep human psychology, philosophy and human culture. Many ideas Freud S. had already been made earlier thinkers can be found in the works of Plato, Art. Shakespeare, Descartes, Kant, Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche, in the writings of Indian sages. The merit Z. Freud, no doubt that he gave these ideas a concrete connection with the practice of psychotherapy, which gave rise to the creation of psychoanalytic concepts.
Characteristics of mind
The analysis of cultural phenomena Freud made from the standpoint of his theory that developed during practice. These views on the structure of the human psyche can be found in the writings of “Psychology of the masses and analysis of the human I” (1921), I and It (1923). We present its basic position. In the human psyche, there are three hard interact scope or jurisdiction. First, unconscious, authority, which belongs primarily are inherited, inborn by the Constitution, is the first organization of physical attraction. Second Superego (Super Ego), or ideal which would condense as the requirements and prohibitions of parents, family, social environment, people’s traditions. Both of these instances are past heredity and social history. Third I (Ego), it owns experienced now, but the reality is experienced and interpreted according to the last of the individual from their desired vision system.
The foundation and generator business mind the unconscious. It is irrational, it concentrated all biological desires (instincts) and human desire, chief among them life affirming sexual (labeled Eros “or libido (from the Latin. Libido desire, passion, desire), dragged to death and generating propensity for aggression (Thanatos). real human psyche, these trains are mixed in different proportions. The main incentive that governs its activities unconscious satisfaction. in addition to these primary natural instincts that are in the unconscious, it contained instincts trains driven from the consciousness of the individual as unacceptable to society and culture. Intelligent I person that is guided in its activities the principle of reality, formed as a result of deliberate social and cultural life of the person, it regulates the actualization of unconscious drives and displaces the scope mind those who do not meet this level of culture (prohibited forms of sexuality, desire for violence, cruelty, etc.). there is no clear boundary between inside and I’m unconscious spiritual substance marked as it is.
For a more visual representation of the interaction and it is I, Freud resorts to the image of the chariot, “functional significance” I is expressed in the fact that in normal cases it has approaches to mobility. It is like a rider who should curb surpasses it by strength of the horse, the difference is that the rider tries to do it themselves, but I borrowed. If a rider does not want to part with the horse, he is left with no choice but to lead a horse to where mine wants , so I turns will It in effect, it were his own will. “This image illustrates the complex process of interaction of consciousness and the unconscious, leading to internal conflicts of the psyche. Internal conflicts caused by unconscious intentions and the inability to implement them due to restrictions imposed by the mind. This ambivalent (contradictory) Freud regarded as the universal features of the human psyche.
Since it is in the psyche is the source of all manifestations of the human soul, insofar psychoanalysis has another name “depth psychology”. According to S. Freud to explain the meaning of the current mental difficulties person must return to his childhood and where to look for them leak. Similarly, to understand the meaning of the various fields of cultural activities of mankind, must apply to the analysis of the early stages of human history, there is an explanation for today’s creations, religious beliefs, moral prohibitions. This identification of ontogenesis related to the development of individual beings and phylogeny relating to the process of historical development an essential prerequisite cultural concepts of psychoanalysis.