The reasons for this kind of existence of common features culture among researchers explain the main motives and incentives that determine human activities, such as self-representation of themselves, self-satisfaction and so on. N. Such motivation can be explained inherent to all people the same feelings: hunger, love, vanity, fear. Other researchers complement these approaches into account other factors such as the presence of external stimuli that determine human reactions: the rhythms in nature (night and day); external environment (reaction to animals, plants, heavenly bodies); availability factor of training and education, in common life; of baseline cultural habits (skills) that provides the ability to play certain reactions in the same conditions and incentives.
There was a need to distinguish between biological and social determinants of universal categories of culture. It was observed that the formation of universals continues with the development of culture and sophistication of any public systems, regardless of their roller.
specificity and diversity of environmental conditions. This draws the attention of the American sociologist Talcott Parsons (1902-1979), existence of evolutionary universals. Early in his periodization, he identifies those that are present in all known social systems: 1) communication system; 2) the system of kinship; 3) some form of religion; 4) technology. These universals composed the “primitive” according to the terminology T. Parsons, the level of society. Further development of formation associated with other universals that increase society’s ability to adapt to changing social and cultural.
Next step is the fifth appearance of universals – social stratification, which is the sixth – the immediate cultural legitimacy of a stratified community cohesion. The transition to modern society associated with the office of the legal system of the religious formation of the administrative bureaucracy (seven universals) market economy (eighth), the generalized system of impersonal rules (ninth), democratic associations (tenth). The absence of one of these properties is blocking the further development of society.
Evolutionary universals has an absolute heuristic value that confirmed case studies of different cultural communities, which means models for the legitimacy of any historical circumstances and types of cultural development. A key concept in T. Parsons is the concept of adaptive capacity, which in case of each subsequent evolutionary universals increases the possibility to anticipate, analyze, monitor the status of the socio-cultural environment and mobilize resources to adapt to it. Thus, the proposed T. Parsons theory embraces human reality in all its historical.
Universals and refinement continues. Thus, postmodern authors who try to explain the many changes in culture that emerged in the last decade of the XX century., Following the other methods do not consider the person as a kind of holistic psychological formation marked term I, and offer I fragmented as a universal characteristic of being the person as condition of its existence. In contrast to the holistic personality dimension that was present in the previous period in European culture and forcibly applied to humans as its final dimension, postmodern theorists justified fragmentation as a true state, which provides a person a sense of inner diversity. Creating the image of man as infinitely relaxing game of its constituent fragments and emphasizing the universality of his interpretation of this, they thereby induce a radical change of theoretical paradigms. The list of universals supplemented by the emergence of new approaches to the analysis of human society.
Psychological and socio-cultural universals make it possible to compare the culture in terms and fix something in common, underlying the diversity of the human community. In the universals of culture constituted outlook specific to a particular stage of cultural evolution. Along with sensory experience universals of culture play a fundamental role in cognitive processes and tools appear sensible articulated attitude, outlook. Thus, the universals of culture create a focus around which crystallize in which images of each culture; at the same time they are the foundation that provides mutual intercultural communication – just that promotes a unified, yet diverse world.