Speaking about universals in culture, keep in mind that overall, that is present in every culture. Universals of culture a universal representation of cultural experiences and activities. In every culture we find respect for motherhood, hospitality and teamwork. Such human qualities as courage, courage, self-control under extreme conditions cause admiration, as cowardice is unfortunately sometimes contempt. Universals of culture is eternal ontological and constants of human existence, the fundamental categories of picture of the world total inner experience.
Basic universals formed in archaic societies and as they stood in the representation awareness in some ancient pyramid. The basis of the pyramid were myths chthonic forces (fire, water, earth, air) and related elements of the cosmos (sun, stars, moon, planets in their personal). The next world was close objects (stone, wood, grain, oil, plate life). Then natural organics (birds, fish, insects) in its space time and chromatic certainty. Above them, a world built universals kinship terms (in the broad sense) and ancient “metaphor” artifacts (house mirror) situations (exchange meeting, path), border states (sleep, laughter, tears, mystery, ecstasy) or tracks (shadow counterpart, voice). Completed Pyramid culture universals list of activities.
Modern science offers to organize universal subject object principle, according to which to object series include world whole reason for the change, and so on. To the subject a person, honor, justice, happiness and so on. etc.; to the subject object knowledge, truth, activity and so on. n. Their meaning different traditions, put it in typical systems for these symbols and traditions discursive practices.
From the history of culture universals
The problem of universals of culture involved B. Malinowski, L. White, A. Bastian, K. Uyssler E. Durkheim, M. Moss, G. Simmel, and others. The work of F. Boas’ Primitive Thinking (1911), the sixth chapter called” The universality of cultural traits. It says that we can base our future considerations on similarity theory of mental functions in all races, because not only emotions, intellect and willpower of man everywhere the same, but of very different peoples are detailed similarities in thought and action. Mathematician John. D. Birkhoff’s work “Measure aesthetics” (1933) attempted to develop a universal canons of artistic perception. Developing his ideas, some researchers argue that just as there are universal standards of technical performance, there are universal standards of aesthetic quality, based on the same psychological impulses. R. Linton in “Study of Man” (1936) discusses “universal human response” such as the dependence of human beings on the emotional feedback of others.
Based on different methods, the researchers tried to determine the so called common denominator cultures. This was explored many specific crops, which were found recurring universals cooking system of kinship, common labor and division of labor, age differentiation, funeral rituals, games, gifts, holidays, religious rites, the presence of language, calendar, decorative arts, organization of society, the taboo system, etc. For example, donation involves expressing a certain attitude, games function as detente and relaxation, the taboo system provides absolute adherence and submission and so on. n. But for all the similarities universals (the existence of common features and components), their specific cultural content may be different. Therefore, the researchers concluded that indeed common features (common denominator crop) is not content identity and similarity classification.